Intimidatory assertive self-presentation in selfie posting is greater in females than males
Keywords:selfie posting, social media, assertive self-presentation, reward sensitivity, intimidation behaviour, female aggression
The current study examined whether assertive self-presentation strategies, demonstrated in ‘real-world’ situations, were related to selfie and non-selfie postings on social media. It examined whether such relationships were associated with differential reward motivations, and whether these relationships were the same for females and males. 118 participants (17-66 years), took part using an online survey. Assertive self-presentational strategies were associated with selfie, but not non-selfie, posting for females, but not males. Females high in intimidation as a self-presentation strategy were most likely to post selfies on social media sites. For males, there was a negative relationship between selfie posting and punishment avoidance. Self-presentational strategies did not predict posting of non-selfies. This suggests that aggressive personality factors, such as anti-social personality or narcissism, both of which have been associated with selfie posting, may drive some selfie-posting behaviour for females, a suggestion that relates to recent studies of selfie behaviour in young females.
Balakrishnan, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). An Exploratory Study of “Selfitis” and the Development of the Selfitis Behavior Scale. International Journal of Mental Health And Addiction, 16(3), 722-736. Doi: 10.1007/s11469-017-9844-x
Bozkurt, A., & Tu, C. H. (2016). Digital identity formation: Socially being real and present On digital networks. Educational Media International, 53(3), 153-167. Doi: 10.1080/09523987.2016.1236885
Butler, J. (1997a). Excitable speech: A politics of the performative. London. Routledge.
Butler, J. (1997b). The psychic life of power: Theories in subjection. Stanford. Stanford University Press.
Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319.
Chua, T. H. H., & Chang, L. (2016). Follow me and like my beautiful selfies: Singapore Teenage girls’ engagement in self-presentation and peer comparison on social media. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 190-197. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.011
Diefenbach, S., & Christoforakos, L. (2017). The selfie paradox: Nobody seems to like them yet everyone has reasons to take them. An exploration of psychological functions of selfies in self-presentation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 7. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00007
Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior:
Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.6.408
Fletcher, C., & Spencer, A. (1984). Sex of candidate and sex of interviewer as determinants of self‐presentation orientation in interviews an experimental study. Applied Psychology, 33(3), 305-313. Doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1984.tb01437.x
Foster, J. D., & Trimm, R. F. (2008). On being eager and uninhibited: Narcissism and approach avoidance motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Doi: 10.1177/0146167208316688
Foster, J. D., Misra, T. A., & Reidy, D. E. (2009). Narcissists are approach-oriented toward their money and their friends. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 764-769. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.05.005
Fox, J., & Rooney, M. C. (2015). The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 161-165. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.017
Gable, S. L. (2006). Approach and avoidance social motives and goals. Journal of Personality, 74(1), 175-222. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00373.x
Goffman, E. (1959). Social psychology (1st ed., pp. 82-84). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Janson, C. H. (2017). Evolutionary ecology of primate social structure. In Evolutionary ecology and human behavior (pp. 95-130). Routledge.
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. (2008). Social psychology (1st ed., pp. 82-84). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Laghi, F., Pallini, S., & Baiocco, R. (2015). Efficacious Self-presentation, assertive and defensive tactics, and personality traits in adolescence. Rassegna di Psicologia, 32(3), 65-82.
Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(1), 34. Doi: QG33-2909/90/$00.?5
Lee, S. J., Quigley, B. M., Nesler, M. S., Corbett, A. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1999). Development of a self-presentation tactics scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(4), 701-722. Doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00178-0
Moon, J. H., Lee, E., Lee, J. A., Choi, T. R., & Sung, Y. (2016). The role of narcissism in self promotion on Instagram. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 22-25. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.042
Park, G., Yaden, D.B., Schwartz, H.A., Kern, M.L., Eichstaedt, J.C., Kosinski, M., ... & Seligman, M.E. (2016). Women are warmer but no less assertive than men: Gender and language on Facebook. PloS one, 11(5).
Reed, P., Bircek, N. I., Osborne, L. A., Viganò, C., & Truzoli, R. (2018). Visual social media use moderates the relationship between initial problematic internet use and later narcissism. The Open Psychology Journal, 11(1), 163-170. Doi: 10.2174/1874350101811010163
Reed, P., & Saunders, J. (2020). Sex differences in online assertive self-presentation strategies. Personality and Individual Differences. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110214
Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Frackowiak, T., Karwowski, M., Rusicka, I., & Oleszkiewicz, (2016). Sex differences in online selfie posting behaviors predict histrionic personality scores among men but not women. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 368-373. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.033
Wang, R., Yang, F., & Haigh, M. M. (2017). Let me take a selfie: exploring the psychological effects of posting and viewing selfies and groupies on social media. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), 274-283. Doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2016.07.004
Zhao, S., Grasmuck, S., & Martin, J. (2008). Identity construction on Facebook: Digital empowerment in anchored relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 1816-1836. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.02.012
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).